Structural/Substantive editing: Involves reviewing the manuscript and making substantive changes and suggestions, specifically regarding plot, characters, tone, pace/flow, chapter arrangement, story structure and completeness. This type of editing typically focuses on the creative/the art of writing elements of the text.

Copyediting: Typically, but not exclusively, involving commercial documents, trade journals, technical manuals etc. Regardless of the text type reviewing grammar, punctuation, active/passive voice, jargon, abbreviations, syntax, graphics, references, numbering, factualness and consistency in formatting are involved.

My current words per minute reading rate: 350-400 (average rate is 200-250) and I continually strive to improve.


Basic Proofread: Involves picking up the errors that are missed in the Edit, specifically regarding spelling, punctuation, grammar, consistency and style. However, it is always good to keep in mind that the lines blur between proofreading and editing AND the order in which the two are completed can vary. It is best to get a quote based on your specific text to allow for variations between differing types of texts.

Comparative Proofreading: Involves carrying over changes from a ‘marked up’ copy of the text to create a new and refined version of the text. Most commonly this sort of proofreading is required when a proofreader has used manual (written) corrections and those corrections need to be carried over onto the new document, commonly in a digital format.

My current words per minute reading rate: 350-400 (average rate is 200-250) and I continually strive to improve.

Localisation from US to AUS English

Refers to changes that are made in order to localise the original text to suit the intended audience. Common examples include the use of ‘realise’ in Australian English rather than the American English ‘realize’ or conversions from the imperial to metric systems.

Beta Reading

A Beta Reader usually (but not exclusively) reads the manuscript after it has been edited and proofread. There is an emphasis on ‘critique’ especially with regard to giving insight through the reader’s eyes. Beta readers comment on things such as tension, readers’ expectations and impressions, clarity, logic, predictability and characterisation just to name a few.

My current words per minute reading rate: 350-400 (average rate is 200-250) and I continually strive to improve.

Transcribing and Typing

Transcription (also known as Audio Typing): Refers to turning oral language into a written form. This could include listening to an audio or video recording and then typing it as a written transcript.

Copy Typing: Involves working from hand written, printed or typed documents. People who don’t have the time, tools, or skills/experience necessary to type their own documents would benefit most from this service.

My current words per minute typing rate: 55 (average rate is 40) and I continually strive to improve.

Fact Checking

As the name implies, this refers to the researching of factual assertions in (predominantly non-fictional) text as well as verification of correct phone numbers, email and business addresses etc.

Ghost Writing

Ghost Writing is predominantly used to write autobiographies or memoirs in the instance where the subject is not an author. The Ghost Writer often gets little or no credit for the work.